Good Money Drives out Bad? The Theory of the Breaking Point 7. Overvalued Money and the Institution of Legal Tender The Evidence of Hoards
Pour une remise en question du type de Bignan During the Middle Bronze Age, metalwork is mostly characterized by the spread of original, massive annular ornaments: With palstaves, those annular ornaments are the main artefacts With palstaves, those annular ornaments are the main artefacts found within the hoards of this period in western France.
Briard first individualized these objects, naming them Bignan-type bracelets after a hoard in Morbihan, where eighteen of them were discovered. Such specific personal ornaments have since been vaguely named thus when discovered, mostly in hoards of the Armorican Massif.
It now seems necessary to reconsider this designation, which associates objects that are at times very different and to take into account their specific characteristics from a morphological, ornamental, technological, contextual and regional point of view.
This paper, which is the result of ongoing doctoral research, aims to propose a new and original typology for such massive annular ornaments and highlight different regional groups. Their production and burying appear as a widespread phenomenon in Atlantic Europe, also expanding beyond that area.
This study also tries to evaluate the role of North-Western France within this wider trend. A historiographical assessment illustrates the evolution of the bracelet issue throughout research regarding the Bronze Age.
Then, in order to propose a new analysis of these massive annular ornaments, a comprehensive database was compiled, from museums and bibliographic data. Armorica corresponding to the French administrative regions of Bretagne, Pays de la Loire and Basse-Normandie is a relatively homogeneous geographic area as regards the type of production and the context.
Concerning the type of production, plano-convex or concavo-convex sections constitute the main shape, which may be decorated with patterns organized in symmetric panels, or without any decoration at all.
Two other groups can be identified: We now have to determine the common and distinctive features existing between the areas of concentration of these bracelets and try to unveil the different mechanisms of production, use, trade and burial.
Careful study of the morphological and ornamental aspects of these annular ornaments, their geographic distribution and discovery contexts, enables a renewed classification to be proposed as well as a description of several production groups.
The different geographic areas studied here present preferential criteria of morphological and ornamental features, following technical, symbolical and aesthetic choices, implying a review of data concerning the typology and terminology of the Bignan-type bracelets.
Morphological criteria of bracelets and anklets will be placed at the centre of this study, especially the general shape penannular, joined or annularsection shape plano-convex, concavo-convex, biconvex, quadrangular, triangular or diamond-shapedand, to a lesser extent, the shape of the extremities.
These typological elements can inform us directly about procedures in the operational chain of bracelet production, and their variations from one region to another. Technological and morphological aspects are both obviously linked.
Particular attention will be paid to the incised decoration: Precise analysis of the organization and shape of patterns have delivered convincing results showing regional and micro-regional preferences.
Depositing processes will also be closely studied, in the light of recent discoveries for which the context is well known, such as the hoard of Saint-Lumine-de-Clisson, Loire-Atlantique Boulud-Gazo et al.
Valuable information is supplied by the rare funerary contexts, which inform us, in particular, about the way these personal ornaments were worn. These discoveries allow the nature of the cultural practice behind the production and depositing of the massive annular ornaments to be considered.
This paper attempts to gather and synthesize the current state of knowledge about massive annular ornaments of the Middle Bronze Age. An accurate classification is proposed, using different criteria that help us define three regional groups.
These promising results are a first step, raising issues that I will further develop in my thesis. The typo-chronology will be refined and applied to a wider geographic area, technological concerns will be developed and hypotheses tested by archaeological experimentation.Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban plombier-nemours.com Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.
Cities have been critical in human development for almost 10, years. We looked at thousands of years' worth of data to determine the 16 greatest cities in human history. Each entry on the list.
It is said: 60% of world cruising boats are metal. The rest are from the USA..! The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth.
Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. The Bronze Age collapse was a transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive.