Genetic background[ edit ] Map of early diversification of modern humans, with halpogroup L2 entering West Africa. Studies of human mitochondrial DNA suggest that all humans share common ancestors from Africaoriginated in the southwestern regions near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola at the approximate coordinates Most of its subclades are largely confined to West and western-Central Africa. Prehistory[ edit ] Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12, B.
Ecology Practical 2 - The distribution of species across a footpath Ecology Practical 2 - The distribution of species across a footpath This online ecology practical resource is designed to give students an opportunity to see how systematic sampling can be used to: They do however, provide an opportunity to introduce fieldwork sampling ideas and some basic ecological principles in the classroom before going out into the field.
The site chosen The footpath runs through across chalk grassland, a vegetation rich in species. The gridded quadrats are placed along a transect running from the middle of the path into the edge of the untrampled grassland Resources 1.
A diagram of the transect line showing the positions of the quadrats with hotlinks to the quadrats Follow link to view 2. Images of eight gridded quadrats supplied as separate images - these are linked from the transect diagram. Identification sheet naming species which occur in the quadrats.
No attempt has been made to separate the grass species or the mosses. This obviously affects the results for species richness and should be discussed. A table for recording results.
Download 'blank results sheet. Species richness results Download 'species richness data. Local frequency results for the two plantain species. Download 'frequency plantains data.
Describe systematic sampling and its various uses see Osmosis Consider some of the changes that might take place along a transect across a footpath.
Brief notes are given here to help you. Relatively few species are able to tolerate heavy trampling. There is usually a decrease in the number of species species richness towards the centre of the path. Note species richness is not the same as species diversity which takes into account the relative abundance of each species as well as the number of species.
Many of the species which tolerate trampling well are able to exhibit the rosette growth form and have their growing points situated close to the ground. Even closely related species vary in their tolerance to trampling.
Greater Plantain is said to be more tolerant of trampling than the Ribwort Plantain. For more information see the website references below.
Measuring species richness at different points along the transect Allocate a quadrat to each pair or small group of students. Using the recording sheet ask them to count the number of different species that they can see. And enter this data into a class spread sheet. It is not necessary to identify species to measure species richness.
With more able students, however, you may wish to make the exercise more interesting by asking them to use the identification sheets to identify the different species they can see.
This data can be recorded using the table given. Investigating the distribution of Greater Plantain and Ribwort Plantain along the transect For each quadrat ask the students to record the number of squares each of the two species of Plantain occurs in i.Three Nutritional Differences Between Bananas and Plantains · February 24, Even though many people confuse the two and consider them the same thing, the nutritional values of bananas and plantains confirm their differences when it comes to the benefits that we want to get from them.
and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) as intercrops in a plantain ﬁeld in Cameroon. We analyzed the effects of intercropping on ant abundance (by taxon) and on the damage caused by C.
sordidus larvae to plantain corms. We also analyzed the relationship between ant abundance and C.
sordidus damage. 78 Establishment of plantain Plantain emergence is very rapid approaching that of perennial ryegrass (Blom ) and faster from autumn sowing than many common grasses (Table 1).
Drinking tea is a lifestyle for us here at Arbor Teas, and we know that’s the case with many of our customers. Tea extends itself past the morning and afternoon cup into dinner, and of course, dessert.
The "Ury" was one such relic that served the bygone. It is fairly a simple rig that is used to preserve cuisines for longer periods. These "ury"'s were usually kept at certain height from the ground with the help of coir ropes attached to the roofs.
The dataset of this article provides information on the abundance of ant taxa in the cultivated plants intercropped with the plantain and the weevil damages.
The Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7 show the abundance of ant taxa in the crops associated to plantain.